Emissions from Coal Plant

© Shutterstock/VanderWolf Images

This research is potentially worth millions of dollars to investors. The depth of analysis conducted by Heffa Schuecking and her team is superb.

Tom Sanzillo Director of Finance, IEEFA institute

Building these coal plants would lead to a failure to reach the Paris climate goals and put us on a fast-track towards a 4°C temperature rise.

Bill Hare CEO of Climate Analytics and lead author of the 4Th IPCC Assessment Report

Coal is the climate killer number one among fossil fuels. We therefore need to phase out coal-fired power generation as quickly as possible.

Prof. Mojib Latif Climate Scientist, Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel (GEOMAR)

Database: Companies on Coal Expansion Course

Investments in new coal power capacity are incompatible with the Paris climate goals as each new coal plant locks-in high CO2 emissions for decades to come. This database identifies the world’s top 120 coal plant developers. In total, these companies aim to build over 550,000 MW – a coal plant fleet that would be 2 ½ times as large as India’s. The divestment of these companies is crucial if we want to limit global warming to 1.5°C.  

Our Sources: The main source for this data was CoalSwarm’s "Global Coal Plant Tracker", which we complemented with company-related research.  

Using the Database: You can customize this database by applying filters, changing the order of the list or searching for specific company names. For the full Coal Plant Developers list, including further information on subsidiaries, please visit the download section.

Downloading Data: You can only download our data as a registered user. Once you have logged in, you will see a download button below the database. By clicking on it, you can download your individual company selection as shown on the site. For downloading our complete list containing additional information, please visit the download section.

Please also review our Methodology and Terms & Conditions.

Coal Plant Developers Database

Million Metric Tons (MT)
Megawatt (MW)
Percent (%)
Percent (%)
prorated Megawatt (MW)
total Megawatt (MW)
Company Sort descending Country of Headquarters Countries of Coal Activity Annual Coal Production (Million Metric Tons) Installed Coal Power Capacity Coal Share of Power Production Coal Share of Revenue Expansion Plans Coal Power (MW) Countries of Coal Power Expansion Countries of Coal Mining Expansion
24 Hour Company Limited
24 Hour Mining and Industry Company Limited
Myanmar Myanmar, Indonesia, Laos 0 MW 0 % prorated 2.550
total 2.800
Myanmar Indonesia, Laos
Aboitiz Power Corporation
Philippines Philippines 300 MW 52 % 31 % prorated 1.344
total 2.696
Philippines
ACWA Power
ACWA Power Moatize Termoelectrica SA (joint venture)
Saudi Arabia Egypt, Mozambique, South Africa, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Vietnam 0 MW 0 % prorated 6.070
total 12.700
Egypt, Mozambique, South Africa, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Vietnam
Adani Group
Adani Power Ltd | Adani Enterprises Ltd | Adani Ports and Special Economic Zone Limited (APSEZ) | Adani Transmission | Adani Global (PT ) | Adani Mining Private Limited (AMPL ) | Adani Pench Power | Adani Power Dahej | Kutchh Power Generation | Surguja Power Ltd | Adani Power (Jharkhand) Limited | Adani Power (Karnataka) Limite | Adani Power Maharashtra Limited | Adani Power Rajasthan Limited | Adani Power Resources Limited | Udupi Power Corporation Limited
India India, Australia, Indonesia 11,0 MT 10.440 MW prorated 6.940
total 6.940
India India, Australia, Indonesia
AES Corporation
AES Argentina | AES Chhattisgarh Energy | AES Eastern Energy LP | AES El Salvador | AES Gener SA | AES India | AES Kazakhstan | AES Kilroot Power Ltd | AES Naganadu Power | Dayton Power & Light Co | DPL Inc | Empresa Eléctrica Guacolda SA | Indianapolis Power & Light Co | Norgener | AES Masinloc Power Partners Co (joint venture) | AESVCM Mong Dong Power Co Ltd (joint venture) | Ayas Enerji Üretim ve Veticaret A.Ş. (joint venture) | Generadora de Electricidad ITABO (joint venture) | Odisha Power Generation Corp (joint venture)
USA USA, Argentina, Bulgaria, Chile, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Hungary, India, Kazakhstan, Philippines, Turkey, United Kingdom, Vietnam 9.056 MW 34 % prorated 818
total 1.655
India, Philippines
African Energy Resources
Guernsey Botswana, Senegal 0 MW 0 % more than 50 % prorated 1.750
total 2.050
Botswana, Senegal Botswana
Al Nowais Investments LLC
Ayoun Moussa Power International Ltd
United Arab Emirates Egypt 0 MW 0 % less than 30 % prorated 2.640
total 2.640
Egypt
Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corporation (APGENCO)
Andhra Pradesh Power Development Company Ltd (“APPDCL”) (Joint Venture)
India India 4.440 MW 62 % capacity prorated 10.200
total 10.200
India
Anhui Province Energy Group Co Ltd (Wenergy Group)
Anhui Province Wenergy Group Co Ltd | Shenhua Shenwan (joint venture) | Shenhua Shenwan Wanjiang Power (joint venture)
China China 5.550 MW 100 % capacity 78 % prorated 3.330
total 4.340
China
Ayala Corporation
AC Energy | GN Power Kauswagan (joint venture) | GNPower Dinginin Ltd. Co. (joint venture) | Sithe GN Power Mariveles (joint venture)
Philippines Philippines 300 MW 73 % prorated 985
total 1.876
Philippines
Bangladesh Power Development Board
North-West Power Generation Company Limited
Bangladesh Bangladesh 250 MW 2 % prorated 3.355
total 6.875
Bangladesh
Beijing Energy Investment Holding
Beijing Energy Group | Beijing Jingmei Group Co Ltd | Beijing Jingneng Clean Energy | Bejing Energy Shiyan Theremo Power Company | Inner Mongolia Jingtai Electric Power Generation | Beijing Jingneng Thermal Power (joint venture) | Huozhou Coal Electricity Co. (joint venture) | Shanxi Dragon Power Generation Co Ltd (joint venture) | Shanxi Zhangshan Power Generation Co (joint venture)
China China 10,5 MT 8.360 MW 55 % capacity prorated 3.420
total 3.420
China China
Bhimasena Power Indo (BPI) (joint venture)
Indonesia Indonesia 0 MW 0 % more than 90 % prorated 1.900
total 1.900
Indonesia
Bihar State Power Holding Co Ltd (BSPHCL)
SJVN Limited | Kanti Bijlee Utpadan Nigam Ltd (joint venture) | Nabinagar Power Generating Company (joint venture)
India India 220 MW 92 % capacity prorated 6.878
total 7.995
India
CDEEE
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic 0 MW 0 % prorated 770
total 770
Dominican Republic
Centum Investment
Amu Power (joint venture)
Kenya Kenya 0 MW 0 % less than 30 % prorated 525
total 1.050
Kenya
CEZ Group
CEZ Bulgaria EAD | CEZ Bulgaria EAD | CEZ Polska Sp zoo | Severočeské doly AS | TEC Varna EAD
Czech Republic Czech Republic, Poland, Bulgaria 21,0 MT 6.462 MW 47 % capacity prorated 1.410
total 1.410
Czech Republic
China Africa Sunlight Energy (joint venture)
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 0 MW 0 % more than 90 % prorated 600
total 600
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe
China Datang Corporation
Anhui Electric Power Co, Ltd | Beijing Datang Power Fuel Co Ltd (modified name, added Beijing to the front) | China Datang Coal Industry Co Ltd | Datang Gansu Power Generation Co Ltd | Datang Guizhou Power Gen Corp | Datang Hebei Power Generation Co Ltd | Datang Heilongjiang Power Gen | Datang Henan | Datang Hunan Huayin Elec Power | Datang International Liaoning | Datang International Power Generation Company | Datang International Xinyu Power Generation | Datang Intl Fuzhou Power Jv (jonit venture) | Datang Jiangsu Power Generation | Datang Jilin Power Generation | Datang Luoyang Shouyangshan | Datang Ordos Silicon & Aluminum Technology Co | Datang Shaanxi Power Generation Co | Datang Shandong | Datang Xinjiang Power Gen Co | Datang Yemazhai | Guangxi Guiguan Electric Power | Inner Mongolia Datang Fuel Coal Ltd | Inner Mongolia Datang Huayin Xidong Energy Development Co Ltd | Inner Mongolia Datang International Xilinhot Mining Industry Co Ltd | Lueyang Datang Power Generation Co. | Shanxi Datang International Power Generation | Shanxi Luxin Datang Power Co | Hohhot Aluminum Power Plant (joint venture)
China China, Pakistan 7,6 MT 90.728 MW 69 % capacity 71 % prorated 28.945
total 30.790
China, Pakistan China
China Energy Engineering Corporation
China Gezhouba Group | CPECC (China Power Engineering Consulting Group)
China Malawi, Vietnam 0 MW 0 % less than 30 % prorated 2.200
total 3.310
Malawi, Vietnam
China Guodian Corporation
China Longyuan Power Group Corp Ltd | GD Power Development Company Limited | Guodian Changyuan Electric Power Co. Ltd | Guodian Changzhou Power Co Ltd | Guodian Chengdu Jintang Power | Guodian Fujian Power Co. | Guodian Henan Power | Guodian Heze Power Co | Guodian Hunan Power Co Ltd | Guodian Jiantou Inner Mongolia Energy | Guodian Ledong Power Gen Co | Guodian Longhua Power Co Ltd | Guodian Northeast Co Guodian Shaanxi Power | Guodian Shandong Electric Power | Guodian Taizhou Generating Co | Guodian Tongling Power Generation Co | Guodian Xinjiang Power | Guodian Younglight Energy Chem | Inner Mongolia Electric Power Co | Inner Mongolia Pingzhuang Coal Group Ltd | Inner Mongolia Pingzhuang Energy Group Ltd | Jiangxi Fengcheng Power Generation Co Ningxia State Power Company | State Power Generation Co. | Yuanbaoshan Power Generation Company Limited | Zhangze Power | Guodian Karamay Power Company | Shandong Zhonghua Power Co Ltd (joint venture) China Longyuan Power Group Corp Ltd | GD Power Development Company Limited | Guodian Changyuan Electric Power Co. Ltd | Guodian Changzhou Power Co Ltd | Guodian Chengdu Jintang Power | Guodian Fujian Power Co. | Guodian Henan Power | Guodian Heze Power Co | Guodian Hunan Power Co Ltd | Guodian Jiantou Inner Mongolia Energy | Guodian Ledong Power Gen Co | Guodian Longhua Power Co Ltd | Guodian Northeast Co Guodian Shaanxi Power | Guodian Shandong Electric Power | Guodian Taizhou Generating Co | Guodian Tongling Power Generation Co | Guodian Xinjiang Power | Guodian Younglight Energy Chem | Inner Mongolia Electric Power Co | Inner Mongolia Pingzhuang Coal Group Ltd | Inner Mongolia Pingzhuang Energy Group Ltd | Jiangxi Fengcheng Power Generation Co Ningxia State Power Company | State Power Generation Co. | Yuanbaoshan Power Generation Company Limited | Zhangze Power | Guodian Karamay Power Company | Shandong Zhonghua Power Co Ltd (joint venture) China Longyuan Power Group Corp Ltd | GD Power Development Company Limited | Guodian Changyuan Electric Power Co. Ltd | Guodian Changzhou Power Co Ltd | Guodian Chengdu Jintang Power | Guodian Fujian Power Co. | Guodian Henan Power | Guodian Heze Power Co | Guodian Hunan Power Co Ltd | Guodian Jiantou Inner Mongolia Energy | Guodian Ledong Power Gen Co | Guodian Longhua Power Co Ltd | Guodian Northeast Co Guodian Shaanxi Power | Guodian Shandong Electric Power | Guodian Taizhou Generating Co | Guodian Tongling Power Generation Co | Guodian Xinjiang Power | Guodian Younglight Energy Chem | Inner Mongolia Electric Power Co | Inner Mongolia Pingzhuang Coal Group Ltd | Inner Mongolia Pingzhuang Energy Group Ltd | Jiangxi Fengcheng Power Generation Co Ningxia State Power Company | State Power Generation Co. | Yuanbaoshan Power Generation Company Limited | Zhangze Power | Guodian Karamay Power Company | Shandong Zhonghua Power Co Ltd (joint venture)
China China 58,7 MT 100.029 MW 77 % 77 % prorated 17.250
total 19.570
China
China Huadian Corporation
China Huadian Corp Sichuan Co | China Huadian Hong Kong | Fujian Huadian Power Company Limited | Guizhou Dafang Power company | Guizhou QianYuan Power Co Ltd | Hebei Huadian Shijiazhuang TPC | Huadian and Hubei Energy | Huadian Changji Egema C&P | Huadian Coal Industry Group Co Ltd | Huadian Energy Co Ltd | Huadian Fuxin Energy Corp Ltd | Huadian Guizhou | Huadian Harbin Thermal Power | Huadian Inner Mongolia | Huadian Power International Corp Ltd | Huadian Resources | Huadian Shaanxi Energy Co | Huadian Shanxi Xinzhou Guangyu Co | Huadian Tengzhou Xinyuan Theromal Power Co | Huadian Xinjiang Power Co Ltd | Huadian Yunnan Power Generation Corp | Jiangsu Huadian Yangzhou Power | Jinshan Energy Corp | Junliangchen Power | Ningxia Electric Power Group Co | PT General Energy Bali | Qinghai Huadian Datong Power | Shaanxi Huadian Pucheng Power | Shandong Century Electric Power Development Co | Shanxi Jinxing Energy Investment | Shanxi Wuxiang Hexin Power Generation | Shenyang Jinshan Energy Co Ltd | Xiangyuan Hexin Power Co | Xinjiang Huadian Weihuliang | Amu Power Company (joint venture) | Huadian Bukit Asam Power (joint venture)
China China, Indonesia, Kenya 43,5 MT 84.790 MW 63 % prorated 25.810
total 27.550
China, Indonesia, Kenya China
China Huaneng Group
China Huaneng Yimin Coal-Electricity Co Ltd | Huaneng Coal Co Ltd | Huaneng Gansu Energy Dev Co | Huaneng Hainan Power Co Ltd | Huaneng Hulunbeier Energy Development Co Ltd | Huaneng Jilin Power Gen Co Ltd | Huaneng Ningxia Energy | Huaneng Power International | Huaneng Qinghai Branch | Huaneng Shaanxi Power Co Ltd | Huaneng Shandong Power Co Ltd | Huaneng Shanxi Corp | Huaneng Sichuan | Huaneng Xinjiang Energy Dev Co | Huaneng Yimin Coal & Electric Co | Inner Mongolia Meng Huaneng | North United Power Co Ltd | Yushen Coal | Zhejiang Electric Power Construction | Huating Coal Group Co Ltd (joint venture)
China China, Pakistan, Singapore 83,3 MT 117.873 MW 71 % capacity more than 30 % prorated 20.750
total 24.450
China, Pakistan China
China Resources Power Holdings Co Ltd
China China, Bangladesh 13,9 MT 29.746 MW 86 % capacity 88 % prorated 10.700
total 13.340
China, Bangladesh
Chongqing Energy Investment Group
Chongqing Nantong Mining Co | Chongqing Qineng Elec & Alumn | Chongqing Hechuan Power Generation Co (joint venture)
China China 18,0 MT 2.313 MW 58 % capacity prorated 3.240
total 5.220
China
Chubu Electric Power
JERA Co Inc | Soma Kyodo Power (joint venture) | Hitachinaka Generation Company
Japan Japan 4.133 MW 24 % capacity prorated 2.378
total 4.020
Japan
Chugoku Electric Power Company, inc.
Japan Japan, Malaysia 2.371 MW 36 % prorated 1.801
total 4.224
Japan, Malaysia
CIIDG Erdos Hongjun Electric Power Co Ltd (Joint venture)
China Cambodia 405 MW 100 % prorated 675 Cambodia
CLP Holdings Ltd
CLP Power China Ltd | CLP Power India Pvt Ltd | CLP Power International Ltd | EnergyAustralia Pty Ltd | Guizhou CLP Power Co | OneEnergy Co. (joint venture) | Castle Peak Power Co (joint venture) | CSEC Guohua International Power Co (joint venture) | HoPing Power Co (joint venture) | Shandong Zhonghua Power Co Ltd (joint venture)
China (Hong Kong) China, Australia, India, Vietnam, Taiwan 11.397 MW 61 % capacity more than 30 % prorated 3.670
total 6.000
China, India, Vietnam Australia
Coal Power Generation Company Bangladesh
Bangladesh Bangladesh 0 MW 0 % more than 50 % prorated 1.200
total 1.200
Bangladesh
Colenso Power
South Africa South Africa 0 MW 0 % prorated 525
total 1.050
South Africa
Daewoo Engineering and Construction (E&C)
South Korea Botswana, Myanmar, Vietnam 0 MW 0 % less than 30 % prorated 3.610
total 4.620
Botswana, Myanmar, Vietnam
Dongfang Electric Corporation
China China, Egypt, Georgia 0 MW 0 % more than 30 % prorated 2.055
total 4.110
Egypt, Georgia
Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT)
Thailand Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam 2.400 MW 8 % prorated 8.450
total 10.050
Thailand, Myanmar, Vietnam
Elektrik Üretim A.Ş. Genel Müdürlüğü (EÜAŞ)
Turkey Turkey 13,3 MT 3.159 MW 12 % prorated 5.800
total 5.800
Turkey Turkey
Elektroprivreda BIH (EPBIH)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 5,7 MT 1.165 MW 80 % 74 % prorated 1.650
total 1.650
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Elektroprivreda Srbije (EPS)
Serbia Serbia 37,0 MT 4.296 MW 70 % more than 30 % prorated 1.450
total 1.450
Serbia Serbia
EMCO
EMCO Energy Zambia Ltd
India Zambia, Indonesia 2,0 MT prorated 600
total 600
Zambia
Enea SA
Enea Wytwarzanie SA | GDF Suez Energia Polska SA | Lubelski Wegiel Bogdanka SA | Elektrocieplownia Bialystok SA (joint venture)
Poland Poland 8,5 MT 4.652 MW 94 % 85 % prorated 1.575
total 2.075
Poland Poland
Energa SA
ENERGA Finance AB
Poland Poland 681 MW 57 % prorated 500
total 1.000
Poland
Engro Powergen Limited
Engro Powergen Thar (Private) Limited | Sindh Engro Coal Mining Company (SECMC) (joint venture)
Pakistan Pakistan 0 MW 0 % more than 90 % prorated 660
total 660
Pakistan Pakistan
Eren Holding
Eren Energy (Eren Enerji)
Turkey Turkey 2.790 MW 96 % capacity prorated 700
total 700
Turkey
Eskom Holdings SOC Ltd
South Africa South Africa 38.548 MW 91 % more than 50 % prorated 9.440
total 9.440
South Africa
Essar Energy Ltd
Essar Power Holding Limited 
Mauritius India 2.910 MW 55 % capacity prorated 2.580
total 2.580
India
Eta-Zuma Group
Zuma 828 Coal Ltd | Zuma Energy Ltd
Nigeria Nigeria 0 MW 0 % more than 30 % prorated 1.200
total 1.200
Nigeria Nigeria
First Quantum Minerals
Minera Panama SA
Canada Botswana, Panama 0 MW 0 % less than 30 % prorated 620
total 920
Botswana, Panama Botswana
Harbin Electric Corp
Harbin Electric International Co Ltd | Harbin Electric Co Ltd
China China, Pakistan, United Arab Emirates 0 MW 0 % 56 % prorated 1.975
total 3.950
Pakistan, United Arab Emirates
Hattat Holding
Batı Karadeniz Elektrik Üretim A.Ş. | Hattat Enerji and Maden A.Ş (Hema) | Hema Elektrik Üretim | Hema Endustri A.S (former Hema Dış Ticaret A.Ş. )
Turkey Turkey 0 MW 0 % prorated 3.500
total 3.500
Turkey Turkey
IL&FS Energy Development Company Limited (IEDCL)
India India 1.236 MW 45 % prorated 3.960
total 3.960
India
Inter RAO UES
JSC Eastern Energy Company | JSC Inter RAO UES Electric Power Plants | JSC Moldovan GRES | OGK11 | OGK3 | TGR Enerji | Eastern Energy Co and SGCC (joint venture) | Experimental TES Company (joint venture) | JSC Ekibastuzskaya GRES (joint venture)
Russia Russia, Kazakhstan, Moldova 7.960 MW 13 % capacity prorated 4.250
total 8.500
Russia, Kazakhstan
Intra Energy Corporation (IEC)
Malcoal (joint venture) | Tancoal Energy Ltd (joint venture)
Australia Tanzania, Malawi 0,4 MT 0 MW 0 % 100 % prorated 335
total 470
Malawi, Tanzania Tanzania, Malawi
J-POWER (Electric Power Development Co., Ltd.)
J-POWER Vietnam | Bhimasena Power Indo (BPI) (joint venture) | Birchwood Power Partners Lp (joint venture)
Japan Japan, Indonesia, Vietnam, USA 3,0 MT 9.400 MW 37 % capacity prorated 3.158
total 4.550
Japan, Indonesia
Jamshoro Power Company
Pakistan Pakistan 0 MW 0 % prorated 1.320
total 1.320
Pakistan
Jindal Steel & Power Ltd
CIC Energy | Jindal Africa | Jindal BVI Limited (JBVI) | Jindal Mining SA (Pty) Ltd | Jindal Mozambique Minerais Limitada | Jindal Power Limited | Mmamabula Power Plant Development | Wollongong Coal Limited
India India, Australia, Botswana, Mozambique, Senegal, South Africa 3,0 MT 3.400 MW 67 % capacity prorated 2.570
total 2.570
India, Mozambique, Senegal, Botswana Botswana, Mozambique
Jinneng Group Co Ltd
Shanxi Jinneng Co Ltd | Datang Shanxi (joint venture) | Shanxi Guojin Power (joint venture)
China China 70,4 MT 3.303 MW 70 % capacity 30 % prorated 4.120
total 4.120
China China
Jiuquan Iron & Steel (Group) Co Ltd
Hongcheng Co Ltd
China China, Jamaica 5.500 MW 100 % capacity prorated 1.600
total 1.600
China, Jamaica
JSW Energy Ltd
Barmer Lignite Mining
India India, Botswana, South Africa, Swaziland 7,0 MT 3.260 MW 69 % capacity more than 50 % prorated 4.140
total 4.140
India, Swaziland India, Botswana, South Africa
Kansai Electric Power Co (KEPCO)
Summit Southern Cross Power Holdings (joint venture)
Japan Japan, Australia 1.800 MW 25 % prorated 1.817
total 3.522
Japan
Kibo Mining plc
Irish Republic Tanzania 0 MW 0 % more than 50 % prorated 350
total 350
Tanzania Tanzania
Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO)
KEPCO Philippines Corp. | KEPCO Power Generation Co Ltd | Korea EastWest Power Co | Korea Midland Power | Korea South-East Power (KOEN) | Korea Southern Power | Korea Western Power | Gangnung Eco Power (joint venture) | Goseong Green Power (joint venture) | Nghi Son2 Project (joint venture) | PT Tanjung Power Indonesia (joint venture) | SPC Power Corp (joint venture) | Goseong Green Power (joint venture)
South Korea South Korea, Australia, Botswana, China, India, Indonesia, Philippines, Swaziland, Vietnam, South Africa 27.327 MW 39 % prorated 10.795
total 14.327
South Korea, Botswana, Indonesia, Philippines, Swaziland, Vietnam, South Africa
Kosovo Energy Corporation J. S. C. (KEK)
Kosovo Kosovo 8,0 MT 1.288 MW 100 % more than 90 % prorated 500
total 500
Kosovo
Kuyasa Mining Pty Ltd
KiPower
South Africa South Africa 2,0 MT 0 MW 0 % more than 90 % prorated 600
total 600
South Africa
Lanco Infratech Limited (Lanco Group)
Griffin Coal Mining Co Pty Ltd | Himavat Power Limited | Vainateya Power Private Limited
India India, Australia, Indonesia 2,5 MT 1.800 MW 81 % 51 % prorated 2.640
total 2.640
India Australia, Indonesia
LYP Group
Cambodia Cambodia 0 MW 0 % less than 30 % prorated 1.000
total 2.000
Cambodia
Maharashtra State Power Generation Co (MAHAGENCO)
India India 8.220 MW 70 % capacity more than 50 % prorated 3.550
total 3.550
India

Support our Research!

Coalexit.org is a platform free of charge. However, it is based on a years-long and extremely costly research. Please help Urgewald with your donation.